Mutual assistance agreements and other types of aid agreements facilitate the rapid sharing of emergency aid and resources among governments and organizations at all levels. These can be existing agreements, such as the Emergency Management Assistance Pact (EFA) or the creation of new tools to deal with emerging events or parties outside of existing agreements. Depending on the nature and scope of an agreement, the laws of a State may govern the formation and operation of the mutual assistance agreement. (Download a printable PDF file.) Mutual assistance agreements (MAs) and other types of arrangements to provide assistance before, during and after an emergency event facilitate the rapid mobilization of personnel, equipment and supplies. Agreements can be made at several levels of government: between state/local authorities; between a State and localities within the State; between two or more States in a region; between states and tribes; or internationally between states and jurisdictions neighbouring Canada or Mexico. MAAs can also exist in a variety of types of organizations, including governments, nonprofits, and private companies. Agreements can range from formal pacts incorporated into law by a state legislature to informal memoranda of understanding defining how state and private resources provide assistance within a given community. Emergency MAAs typically deal with emergency management, fire, law enforcement, and medical response issues, although they can address other issues (see below). Participation in MAs is considered an important component of the Federal National Incident Management System (NIMS), which aims to provide a systematic approach to support governments at all levels, non-governmental organizations and the private sector in collaborative emergency preparedness and response activities.1 EMAC is a type of MAID that facilitates the sharing of assistance between states during emergency events. including natural and man-made disasters. EMAC was ratified by the U.S. Congress in 1996.3 It is the most widely used MAA in the United States; EMAC has been adopted by all states, the District of Columbia, and some territories.4 EMAC does not replace federal support, but complements federal resources or provides resources when an event does not warrant federal support. EMAC is triggered by a requesting state through a declaration by the emergency governor and a request for assistance made through the National Emergency Management Association (NEMA), the organization that administers EMAC.4 Support states respond to the request and provide the requested resources.

Under the EMAC, the requesting State is responsible for compensating the supporting State for all costs incurred.5 The EMAC also deals with licensing, liability and compensation issues for personnel deployed in accordance with an EMAC request. Clean-up assistance under the Covenant is considered to be an intermediary of the requesting State for the purposes of tort and resensitivity; No supporting State or its officers, employees or other persons appointed by the State through EMAC shall be liable for any act or omission committed in good faith.6 Wilful misconduct, gross negligence or recklessness shall be excluded from EMAC`s immunity. .

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j$k2045018j$kMutual assistance agreements and other types of aid agreements facilitate the rapid sharing of emergency aid and resources among governments and organizations at all levels. These can be existing agreements, such as the Emergency Management Assistance Pact (EFA) or the creation of new tools to deal with emerging events...